What is a TYPO3 extension?
A TYPO3 extension is an extension of the TYPO3 base, which contains functions that are not available in the normal TYPO3 core. An extension can fulfill completely new tasks or supplement existing functions with additional features. Extensions can be installed via the Extension Manager.
A TYPO3 extension can take over functionalities in the core, the backend and/or the frontend. After integrating an extension, an additional TYPO3 module (https://www.sgalinski.de/en/typo3-agency/typo3-documentation-website-base/backend-modules/) can often be found in the backend. Sometimes new content elements (https://www.sgalinski.de/en/typo3-agency/typo3-documentation-website-base/content-area-contents/) are added.
Like TYPO3, TYPO3 extensions are written with PHP. And also we have already programmed some TYPO3 extensions, which are still developed and maintained. Partly these are available as open source projects (https://www.sgalinski.de/en/open-source/).